Avrupa'da Vaka Çalışma Alanları
Case study areas
- Austria-Murtal aquifer
- Croatia-The Zagreb aquifer system
- Czech Republic-Sumava region
- Finland-Rokua-Hailuoto Esker
- France-Feucherolles site
- Germany-The Bitterfeld site
- Greece-Vosvozis river basin
- Italy-Po aquifer
- Netherlands-De Kromme Rijn
- Poland-Bogucice aquifer
- Poland-Czestochowa aquifer
- Spain-Mancha Oriental aquifer
- Sweden-Lule river
- Switzerland-Transfleuron/Milandre site
- Turkey-Koycegiz-Dalyancoastal catchment and Lagoon
The selected test sites selected for GENESIS project work purposes are:
Austria-Murtal aquifer: In the Murtal aquifer south of Graz in southeast Austria a wide spectrum of different landuses exist. A lysimeter research station has been operated for more than twenty years to eveal the impacts of traditional and biological agriculture on groundwater quality.
Croatia-The Zagreb aquifer system: The Zagreb aquifer system (Croatia) is the only source of potable water for the Croatian capital. Increasing pollution has been observed from leaky sewerage, city landfill, agriculture, illegal waste depositories, gravel pits, and industrial facilities with high concentrations of nitrates, pesticide atrazine, heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The impacts are affecting water supply and the Sava River, which is hydraulically connected to the unconfined quaternary aquifer.
Czech Republic-Sumava region: The area is located at the Czech-German border and consists of fractured crystalline rocks. Point sources of pollution exist related to unregulated landfills and untreated domestic waste water jeopardizing biosphere reservations.
Finland-Rokua-Hailuoto Esker: The Eskers is one of the most important in Finland. Eskers are also the main groundwater aquifer in Northern Europe. The aquifer faces pressures from forestry (ditching), agriculture, old landfills, and water regulation. The main conflicts are related to impacts of forestry drainage and future plans on increased groundwater use on Natura 2000 areas (wetlands and lakes). The Esker lies in the Finnish WFD pilot river Oulu.
France-Feucherolles site: An experimental test site exists 50 km west of Paris (multilayered aquifer system) to study the leachates from applications of sewage sludge, municipal solid waste and biowaste compost in combination with a crop rotation of maize and winter wheat.
Germany-The Bitterfeld site: The Bitterfeld site is a typical regional quaternary - tertiary aquifer system consisting of various sand and gravel layers separated by lignite layer and drains into a floodplain of river Mulde. The aquifer system becomes contaminated at a regional scale (25 km2) by of halogenated organic contaminants (solvents, chlorinated benzenes, hexachlorocylohexanes and pesticides) due to former chlorine and carbon industry. The setting is typical for long contamination plume in a catchment area of river which will discharge contaminated ground water via wetlands or river bank ex-filtration. The site belongs the SAFIRA sites typical at large scale industrial contaminated areas.
Greece-Vosvozis river basin: The study area is situated in Northeast Greece. Groundwater from the plain discharges into the Ismariada lake that is protected by the Ramsar convention. At the same time a well field is operated serving diverse water needs calling for a integrative management strategy.
Italy-Po aquifer: The aquifer is one of the most important in Europe. It faces diffuse loading from agriculture (nitrogen, pesticide leaching) and point sources from e.g. Caretti landfill with municipal and industrial waste containing hydrocarbons from oil refinery. Studies on groundwater and ecosystems will be included.
Netherlands-De Kromme Rijn: The Kromme Rijn is one of the delta branches of the Rhine. Groundwater dependent ecosystems are endangered due to drainage, drinking water supply and diffuse pollution. Moreover, the area is being subject to flood risks reduction measures.
Norway-Grue-site: The Grue Site is located at the Glomma aquifer, one of the largest and most important aquifers in Norway. At this site more than 90 per cent of area is used for grain and potato production. The site represents aquifers in cold climate where pesticides are slowly degraded and represent major threats to groundwater and GDEs.
Poland-Bogucice aquifer: The multilayer aquifer system lies east of the city of Krakow. The abstraction is large compared to groundwater renewal and cannot meet all needs. Groundwater dependent ecosystems (Natura 2000) are additionally endangered by sources of anthropogenic pollution.
Poland-Czestochowa aquifer: The aquifer is located in southwest Poland. It serves as drinking water resource but due to geologic conditions the aquifer is vulnerable to diverse sources of pollution. Groundwater dependent ecosystems are also affected.
Spain-Mancha Oriental aquifer: The aquifer unit, located in Eastern Spain, is heavily overdrafted due to irrigation leading to depletion of Jucar River discharge. Based on numerical models it is planned to assess groundwater management strategies and opportunity costs subject to environmental constraints. Since the aquifer also presents high nitrate concentrations it has been defined as at risk of not reaching the good water status by 2015. Cost-efficient programmes of measures will be defined.
Sweden-Lule river: The Lule river in northern Sweden is strongly regulated with 15 hydropower stations. Thus, the connected aquifers and the riparian zone (forest) are strongly influenced. Biogeochemical processes in the hyporeic zone will be studied in detail and compared to conditions in pristine ecosystems.
Switzerland-Transfleuron/Milandre site: The site(s) consists of karstified limestone in the Western Swiss Alps. It is expected that climate change will significantly affect the hydrological regime with further impacts on groundwater dynamics and transport of substances.
Turkey-Koycegiz-Dalyancoastal catchment and Lagoon: The wetland area in southwest Turkey plays an important ecological role between the watershed area and the Mediterranean Sea. Without appropriate groundwater management strategy it will be increasingly threatened by declining groundwater flow and eutrophication.