NEDEN HAVZALAR VE YÖNETİMLERİ?
No matter where you are, you are in a watershed! Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes, and they cross political and geographic boundaries. Watersheds supply drinking water, provide recreation, and sustain life worldwide. Watersheds are rich in natural capital, producing goods (agriculture and fisheries products) and services (industry, energy, and technology) for broad geographic areas. In many countries the base of watersheds, where rivers empty into large water bodies such as estuaries and oceans, are centers of society. These are typically densely populated areas of concentrated socioeconomic activity. Many of these areas also serve as centers of domestic and international commerce and tourism, and often are where local, regional, and national governments are located.
Watersheds are populated with a vast array of fish and wildlife. They contain habitats for resident wildlife and pathways for migratory animals (e.g. birds, fish). These natural amenities are often regarded as indicators of the health of an area.
Watershed natural capital and amenities are highly valuable today for future generations. Likewise, they are highly vulnerable to threats to human well-being and security. We all live in watersheds, and our individual actions can directly and indirectly affect them. The cumulative effects of all the individual actions of everyone within a watershed may be, and often are, devastating to the quality of water resources and affect the health of all living things.
Traditionally, water is managed in different geographical compartments (e.g., rivers, reservoirs, lakes, estuaries, groundwater) using specific tools for individual compartments, and often by different institutions or governmental entities. However, management for the sustained use of water and other ecosystem resources (e.g. fisheries) requires an integrated ecosystem-based approach, in many cases linking air-sheds, watersheds (terrestrial as well as aquatic areas), and coastal waters. Watershed management is a broad issue that requires expertise from multiple disciplines including water quality and quantity, aquatic pollutant transport, aquatic chemistry, ecology, and fisheries and wildlife as well as social sciences, economics, and decision making. Multidisciplinary approaches are required, and groups of natural scientists, engineers, social scientists, and managers must collaborate to develop and implement recommendations for the sustainable management of the natural capital of watersheds.
An ecosystem approach is the most effective framework to address today's watershed resource challenges. An ecosystem approach needs to involve a coordinating decision making organizations for sustainability management. This coordinating body must focus public and private sector efforts on addressing the highest priority problems within hydrological defined geographic areas, taking into consideration both natural and socioeconomic systems. Management tools for all the geographical compartments need to be coupled and used interactively. These integrated management systems will provide information and results to all stakeholders in a watershed and promote collaboration and cooperation among competing users of natural capital. In a framework of cooperation, it is easier to share knowledge, data, and working methods with the advantage being sustained use and development by stakeholders.